Histology-World!

 

 

 

Histology Testbank: Skin 1a

 

Instructions: For each histology question, pick the one best answer. This histology test bank is also useful for the histology questions on the USMLE (USMLE step 1).

1.
Which of the following is composed of loose connective tissue?
a. Epidermis
b. Reticular layer of dermis
c. Hypodermis
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c

Answer: c

The skin is composed of two layers: the epidermis and the dermis. Underneath these layers lies the hypodermis. The epidermis is stratified squamous epithelium. The dermis is composed of a papillary layer and a reticular layer. The reticular layer of the dermis is made up of dense irregular connective tissue. The hypodermis is a layer of loose connective tissue.

2.
Where is thick skin found?
a. Over the knee
b. Sole of the feet
c. Breast
d. Lips
e. All of the above

Answer: b

3.
Which layer of the epidermis has cells which have keratohyaline granules?
a. Stratum basale
b. Stratum spinosum
c. Stratum granulosum
d. Stratum lucidum
e. Stratum corneum

Answer: c

The epidermis is divided into five layers: stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum.

The stratum basale contains the dividing cells. This layer is also called the stratum germinativum.

The stratum spinosum consists of a layer several cells deep. The cells have pointy or spiny processes on them. The cells in the stratum granulosum contain keratohyaline granules.

The stratum lucidum is present only in thick skin.

The stratum corneum is the outermost layer. The cells in this layer are essentially bags of keratin. They contain no nuclei or organelles.

Histology hint from Sarah Bellham: My favorite mnemonic for remembering the layers of the skin: "Californian Ladies Give Superb Backrubs"

4.
Which cell is a macrophage found in the skin?
a. Kupffer cells
b. Histiocyte
c. Dust cell
d. Langerhans cell
e. Microglia

Answer: d

Macrophages are mononuclear phagocytes. Many tissues have resident (fixed) macrophages. Fixed macrophages are given a unique name, depending on the tissue that they are located in. Kupffer cells are the hepatic macrophages. Histiocytes are macrophages seen in connective tissue. Dust cells are alveolar macrophage found in the respiratory tract. Langerhans cells are macrophages seen in the skin. Microglia are the central nervous system macrophages.

5.
A new miracle skin cream recently hit the beauty counters which is suppose to stimulate collagen production. Which cell is it supposedly stimulating?
a. Langerhans cell
b. Keratinocyte
c. Melanocyte
d. Merkel cell
e. Fibroblast

Answer: e

Langerhans cells, keratinocytes, melanocytes, and Merkel cells are all found in the epidermis. The Langerhans cell is a phagocyte. The keratinocyte is the most abundant cell in the epidermis. The melanocyte produces melanin, which is responsible for skin pigmentation. The Merkel cell is a mechanoreceptor.

Fibroblasts are found in the dermis. Fibroblasts produces collagen.

6.
What is the half moon shaped white area on a nail called?
a. Lunula
b. Eponychium
c. Matrix
d. Nail bed
e. Root

Answer: a

The lunula is the half moon shaped white area on a nail. The anatomical term for the cuticle is the eponychium. The matrix is the region of the nails where there are dividing cells and nail growth. The nail plate rests on the nail bed. The nail root is the proximal portion of the nail that is underneath skin.

7.
What is the growing part of the nail?
a. Lunula
b. Eponychium
c. Matrix
d. Nail bed
e. Root

Answer: c

The lunula is the half moon shaped white area on a nail. The anatomical term for the cuticle is the eponychium. The matrix is the region of the nails where there are dividing cells and nail growth. The nail plate rests on the nail bed. The nail root is the proximal portion of the nail that is underneath skin.

8.
What type of glands are the ceruminous glands?
a. Sebaceous glands
b. Eccrine sweat gland
c. Endocrine gland
d. Apocrine sweat gland
e. Oil gland

Answer: d

The ceruminous glands of the ear are apocrine sweat glands.

9.
Which of the following is the most abundant sensory receptor of the skin?
a. Free nerve endings
b. Ruffini's corpuscles
c. Pacinian corpuscles
d. Krause's end bulbs
e. Meissner's corpuscle

Answer: a

There are several different sensory receptors in the skin. The most abundant sensory receptor are the free nerve endings. Free nerve endings respond to pain and temperature. Ruffini's corpuscles respond to continuous pressure. Pacinian corpuscles respond to vibration and rapidly changing pressure. Krause's end bulbs are a receptor for fine touch which are located in mucous membranes and the tongue. Meissner's corpuscles are also a receptor for fine touch but they are located in the dermis.

10.
Where can hair be found?
a. Palms of hand
b. Soles of feet
c. Urogenital openings
d. Lips
e. Eyelid

Hair is present over most of the body. It is not found on the palms of the hand,
soles of the feet, urogenital openings, and lips.